FUTURES AND OPTIONS RISK DISCLOSURE STATEMENT
This brief statement does not disclose all the risks and other significant aspects of trading in futures and options.
In light of the risks, you should undertake such transactions only if you understand the nature of the contracts (and contractual relationships) into which you are entering and the extent of your exposure to risk.
Trading in futures and options is not suitable for many members of the public.
You should carefully consider whether trading is appropriate for you in light of your experience, objectives, financial resources and other relevant circumstances.
Futures Risk Disclosure Statement
- Past Performance is not Future Performance.
Although CSI has provided what information is known about the trading systems that we offer.
This information is always limited by the fact that it refers to past performance.
Past Performance is not necessarily indicative of future results.
The effects of world events, liquidity, shifting market preferences, trade signal disruption, and many other things cannot be successfully predicted, but do have a significant impact on your future results.
CSI makes no claims as to whether you will make or loss money if you follow the trading systems offered.
- Use only Risk Capital
The risk of loss in trading commodities can be substantial.
Never trade with so much money that your life will be materially impacted if you lose it.
The commodity markets are a zero-sum game (before commissions and fees).
So if someone is making money then someone else is losing money.
We have spent considerable effort studying the trading systems we sell in an effort to maximize the chances that you, the purchaser, will make money on average.
Keep your investments well diversified and trade commodities only with money that you can afford to lose.
- Effect of "Leverage" or "Gearing"
Transactions in futures carry a high degree of risk.
The amount of initial margin is small relative to the value of the futures contract so that transactions are "leveraged" or "geared".
A relatively small market movement will have a proportionately larger impact on the funds you have deposited or will have to deposit: this may work against you as well as for you.
You may sustain a total loss of initial margin funds and any additional funds deposited with the firm to maintain your position.
If the market moves against your position or margin levels are increased, you may be called upon to pay substantial additional funds on short notice to maintain your position.
If you fail to comply with a request for additional funds within the time prescribed, your position may be liquidated at a loss and you will be liable for any resulting deficit.
- Risk-reducing orders or strategies
The placing of certain orders (e.g. "stop loss" orders, where permitted under local law, or "stop-limit" orders) which are intended to limit losses to certain amounts may not be effective because market conditions may make it impossible to execute such orders.
Strategies using combinations of positions, such as "spread" and "straddle" positions may be as risky as taking simple "long" or "short" positions.
Options Risk Disclosure Statement
- Variable degree of risk
Transactions in options carry a high degree of risk.
Purchasers and sellers of options should familiarize themselves with the type of option (i.e., put or call) which they contemplate trading and the associated risks.
You should calculate the extent to which the value of options must increase for your position to become profitable, taking into account the premium and all transaction costs.
The purchaser of options may offset or exercise the options or allow the options to expire.
The exercise of an option results either in cash settlement or in the purchase acquiring or delivering the underlying interest.
If the option is on a future, the purchaser will acquire a future position with associated liabilities for margin (see the section on Futures above).
If the purchased options expire worthless, you will suffer a total loss of your investment which will consist of the option premium plus transactions cost.
If you are contemplating purchasing deep-out-of-the-money options, you should be aware that the chance of options becoming profitable ordinarily is remote.
Selling ("writing" or "granting") an option generally entails considerably greater risk than purchasing options.
Although the premium received by the seller is fixed, the seller may sustain a loss well in excess of that amount.
The seller will be liable for additional margin to maintain the position if the market moves unfavorably.
The seller will also be exposed to the risk of the purchaser exercising the option and the seller will be obligated to either settle the option in cash or to acquire or deliver the underlying interest.
If the option is on a future, the seller will acquire a position in a future with associated liabilities for margin (see the section on futures above).
If the option is "covered" by the seller holding a corresponding position in the underlying interest or a future or another option, the risk may be reduced.
If the option is not covered, the risk of loss can be unlimited.
Certain exchanges in some jurisdictions permit deferred payment of the option premium, exposing the purchaser to liability for margin payments not exceeding the amount of premium.
The purchaser is still subject to the risk of losing the premium and transaction costs.
When the option is exercised or expires, the purchaser is responsible for any unpaid premium outstanding at that time.
Additional risks common to futures and options:
- Term and conditions of contracts
You should ask the firm with which you deal about the terms and conditions of specific futures or options which you are trading and associated obligations such as the circumstances under which you become obligated to make or delivery of underlying interest of a futures contract and, in respect of option, expiration dates and restrictions on the time for exercise.
Under certain circumstances the specifications of outstanding contracts (including the exercise price of an option) may be modified by the exchange or clearing house to reflect changes in the underlying interest.
- Suspension or restriction of trading and pricing relationships
Market conditions (e.g., illiquidity) and/or the operation of the rules of certain markets
(e.g., the suspension of trading in any contract or contract month because of price limits or "circuit breakers") may increase the risk of loss by making it difficult or impossible to effect transactions or liquidate/offset positions.
If you have sold options, this may increase the risk of loss.
Further, normal pricing relationships between the underlying interest and the future, and the underlying interest and the option may not exist.
This can occur when, for example, the futures contract underlying the option is subject to price limits while the option is not.
The absence of an underlying reference price may make it difficult to judge "fair" value.
- Deposited cash and property
You should familiarize yourself with the protections accorded money or other property you deposit for domestic and foreign transactions, particularly in the event of a firm insolvency or bankruptcy.
The extent to which you may recover your money or property may be governed by specific legislation or local rules.
In some jurisdictions, property which had been specifically identifiable as your own will be pro-rated in the same manner as cash for the purposes of distribution in the event of shortfall.
- Commission and other charges
Before you begin to trade, you should obtain a clear explanation of all commission, fees, and other charges for which you will be liable.
These charges will affect your net profit (if any) or increase your loss.
- Transactions in other jurisdictions
Transactions on markets in other jurisdictions, including markets formally linked to a domestic market, may expose you to additional risk.
Such markets may be subject to regulation which may offer different or diminished investor protection.
Before you trade you should inquire about any rules relevant to your particular transactions.
Your local regulatory authority will be unable to compel the enforcement of the rules of regulatory authorities or markets in other jurisdictions where your transactions have been affected.
You should ask the firm with which you deal for details about the types of redress available in both your home jurisdiction and other relevant jurisdictions before you start to trade.
- Currency risks
The profit or loss in transactions in foreign currency-denominated contracts, whether they are traded in your own or another jurisdiction, will be affected by fluctuations in currency rates where there is a need to convert from the currency denomination of the contract to another currency.
- Trading facilities
Most open-outcry and electronic trading facilities are supported by computer-based component systems for the order-routing, execution, matching, registration, or clearing of trades.
As with all facilities and systems, they are vulnerable to temporary disruption or failure.
Your ability to recover certain losses may be subject to limits on liability imposed by the system provider, the market, the clearing house and/or member firms.
Such limits may vary: you should ask the firm with which you deal for details in this respect.
- Electronic trading
Trading on an electronic trading system may differ not only from trading in an open-outcry market but also from trading on other electronic trading systems.
If you undertake transactions on an electronic trading system, you will be exposed to risks associated with the system including the failure of hardware and software.
The result of any system failure may be that your order is either not executed according to your instructions or is not executed at all.
- Off-exchange transactions
In some jurisdictions, and only then in restricted circumstances, firms are permitted to effect off-exchange transactions.
The firm with which you deal may be acting as your counterparty to the transaction.
It may be difficult or impossible to liquidate an existing position, to assess the value, to determine a fair price, or to assess the exposure to risk.
For these reasons, these transactions may involve increased risks.
Off-exchange transactions may be less regulated or subject to a separate regulatory regime.
Before you undertake such transactions, you should familiarize yourself with applicable rules and attendant risks.
FOREIGN EXCHANGE RISK DISCLOSURE STATEMENT
The risk of loss in trading the foreign exchange markets can be substantial.
You should therefore carefully consider whether such trading is suitable for you in light of your financial condition.
In considering whether to trade or authorize someone else to trade for you, you should be aware of the following:
Loss of margin and additional funds
If you purchase or sell a foreign exchange option you may sustain a total loss of the initial margin funds and additional funds that you deposit with your broker to establish or maintain your position.
If the market moves against your position, you could be called upon by your broker to deposit additional margin funds, on short notice, in order to maintain your position.
If you do not provide the additional required funds within the prescribed time, your position may be liquidated at a loss, and you would be liable for any resulting deficit in you account.
Impossible to liquidate
Under certain market conditions, you may find it difficult or impossible to liquidate a position.
This can occur, for example when a currency is deregulated or fixed trading bands are widened.
Potential currencies include, but are not limited to the
Thai Baht, South Korean Won, Malaysian Ringitt, Brazilian Real, Hong Kong Dollar.
Stop Loss may not be effective
The placement of contingent orders by you or your trading advisor, such as a "stop-loss" or "stop-limit" orders, will not necessarily limit your losses to the intended amounts, since market conditions may make it impossible to execute such orders.
Spread position may be riskier
A "spread" position may not be less risky than a simple "long" or "short" position.
High degree of leverage
The high degree of leverage that is often obtainable in foreign exchange trading can work against you as well as for you.
The use of leverage can lead to large losses as well as gains.
Account fee changes
In some cases, managed accounts are subject to substantial charges for management and advisory fees.
It may be necessary for those accounts that are subject to these charges to make substantial trading profits to avoid depletion or exhaustion of their assets.
Currency trading is speculative and volatile
Currency prices are highly volatile.
Price movements for currencies are influenced by, among other things: changing supply-demand relationships; trade, fiscal, monetary, exchange control programs and policies of governments; United States and foreign political and economic events and policies; changes in national and international interest rates and inflation; currency devaluation; and sentiment of the market place.
None of these factors can be controlled by any individual advisor and no assurance can be given that an advisor's advice will result in profitable trades for a participating customer or that a customer will not incur losses from such events.
Currency trading can be highly leveraged
The low margin deposits normally required in currency trading (typically between 3%-20% of the value of the contract purchased or sold) permits an extremely high degree leverage.
Accordingly, a relatively small price movement in a contract may result in immediate and substantial losses to the investor.
Like other leveraged investments, in certain markets, any trade may result in losses in excess of the amount invested.
Currency trading presents unique risks
The interbank market consists of a direct dealing market, in which a participant trades directly with a participating bank or dealer, and a brokers' market.
The brokers' market differs from the direct dealing market in that the banks or financial institutions serve as intermediaries rather than principals to the transaction.
In the brokers' market, brokers may add a commission to the prices they communicate to their customers, or they may incorporate a fee into the quotation of price.
Trading in the interbank markets differs from trading in futures or futures options in a number of ways that may create additional risks.
For example, there are no limitations on daily price moves in most currency markets.
In addition, the principals who deal in interbank markets are not required to continue to make markets. There have been periods during which certain participants in interbank markets have refused to quote prices for interbank trades or have quoted prices with unusually wide spreads between the price at which transactions occur.
Failure of a client's dealing center
Under regulation, dealing centers are required to maintain a client's assets in a segregated account.
If a client's dealing center fails to do so, the client may be subject to a risk of loss of his funds on deposit with the dealing center in the event of its bankruptcy.
In addition, under certain circumstances, such as the inability of another client of the dealing center or the dealing center itself to satisfy substantial deficiencies in such other client's account, a client may be subject to a risk of loss of his funds on deposit with his dealing center, even if such funds are properly segregated.
Broker may receive undisclosed compensation
When acting as an introducing foreign exchange broker for its customers,
The Introducing Foreign Exchange Broker could receive a portion of the commission charged by the dealing center for the execution of client trades.
The receipt of a portion of such commissions could create a potential conflict of interest for it by creating an incentive to execute trades in such client accounts on a more frequent basis than would be appropriate.
This brief statement cannot disclose all the risks and other significant aspects of the foreign exchange markets.
You should therefore carefully study all the documents provided by your broker before you trade, including the description of the principle risk factors of the investment.
The following Risk Disclosure document is provided by the National Futures Assocation, and provides much greater, but still not exhaustive, detailes about the risks inherient in Futures and Currency trading.
Also visit www.nfa.futures.org to examine the history your broker has.
You can search by name or by membership number.
If you broker is unable or reluctant to provide his membership number, then do not do business with him.
The Commodity Futures Trading Commission exists to protect consumers like you.
Visit www.cftc.gov for more information.